Implementation and Evaluation of a Media Literacy Skills Curriculum: An Action Research Study

Cahit Erdem, Bahadır Erişti


The literature highlights the significance of media literacy instruction in pre-service teacher education period, but there are few attempts to develop and implement curricula to this end. This action research study aimed to report the steps to adapt ‘the media literacy skills curriculum design’ for pre-service teachers, which was developed for face-to-face education environments, to an online learning management system in line with emergency remote teaching amid Covid-19 pandemic, and report the results of curriculum evaluation. The study adopted ‘The Curriculum Development through Action Research Model’. The participants were pre-service teachers at an education faculty of a state university in Turkey. The quantitative data were collected through Media Literacy Skills Scale and qualitative data were collected using several forms, rubrics, and reflection tools. The study revealed that the implementation of the media literacy skills curriculum had a strong positive effect on pre-service teachers’ levels of media literacy skills. The study also revealed changes in pre-service teachers’ perceptions of media and media literacy, interactions with media, as well as certain areas for curriculum development in terms of contents, teaching-learning experiences, and assessment components of the curriculum. The study discusses the results and offers implications for media literacy education in pre-service teacher education.

Full Text:



Aufderheide, P. (1993). Media Literacy: a report of the national leadership conference on media literacy.

Baker, F. W. (2010). Media literacy: 21st century literacy skills. In H. H. Jacobs (Ed.), Curriculum 21: Essential education for a changing world (pp. 133–152). ASCD.

Baran, S. (2014). Introduction to mass communication: Media literacy and culture. McGraw Hill Companies.

Barut, E., Demirer, V., Erbaş, C., Dikmen, C. H., & Sak, N. (2016). Media literacy training for prospective teachers: Instructional design process and its evaluation. Çukurova University Journal of Education Faculty, 45(1), 49–70.

Buckingham, D. (2009). The future of media literacy in the digital age: Some challanges for policy and practice. Medienimpulse-Online.

Burnett, C., & Merchant, G. (2011). Is there a space for critical literacy in the context of social media? English Teaching: Practice and Critique, 10(1), 41–57.

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. L. Erlbaum Associates.

Considine, D. (2002). Media literacy across the curriculum (Cable in the Classroom: Thinking Critically about Media).

Corey, S. M. (1949). Curriculum development through action research. Educational Leadership, 7(3), 147–153.

Cramer, L. M. (2015). Teaching the foundations of media literacy in the basic communication course. The Forensic of Pi Kappa Delta, 100, 13–32.

Domine, V. (2011). Building 21st century teachers: An intentional pedagogy of media literacy education. Action in Teacher Education, 33, 194–205.

Donohue, P., & Kelly, K. (2016). Transforming digital literacy with culturally diverse, personalized learning. In M. Yıldız & J. Keengwe (Eds.), Handbook of research on media literacy in the digital age (pp. 161–185). IGI Global.

Dunning, D., Heath, C., & Suls, M. (2004). Flawed self-assessment: Implications for health, aducation and workplace. Psychol Sci Public Interest, 5(3), 69–106.

Erdem, C. (2018a). Designing a media literacy curriculum for pre-service teachers. Anadolu University.

Erdem, C. (2018b). Media literacy education across the world and in Turkey. In G. Mıhladız (Ed.), Academic research in educational sciences (pp. 403–418). Gece.

Erdem, C., & Erişti, B. (2018). Paving the way for media literacy instruction in preservice teacher education: Prospective teachers levels of media literacy skills. International Journal of Instruction, 11(4), 795–810.

Erişti, B., & Erdem, C. (2017). Development of a media literacy skills scale. Contemporary Educational Technology, 8(3), 249–267.

European Conmission. (2006). Recommendation of the european parliement and of the council of december 2006 on the pretection of minors and human dignity and on the right of reply in relation to the competitiveness of the european audiovisual and on-line information services industry. Official Journal of the European Union, 49.

Ferrance, E. (2000). Themes in education: Action research. Northeast and Islands Regional Educational Laboratory At Brown University.

Finegold, D., & Notabartolo, A. S. (2008). 21st century competencies and their impact: an interdisciplinary literature review.

Fleming, L. (2013). Expanding learning opportunities with transmedia practices: Inanimate alice as an exampler. Journal of Media Literacy Education, 5(2), 370–377.

Flores-Koulish, S. (2006). Media literacy: An entree for pre-service teachers into ciritical pedagogy. Teachiing Education, 17(3), 239–249.

Goetze, S. K., Brown, D. S., & Schwarz, G. (2005). Teachers need media literacy, too! In G. Schwarz & P. Brown (Eds.), Media literacy: Transforming curriculum and teaching. National Society for the Study of Education.

Green, J., Willis, K., Hughes, E., Small, R., Welch, N., Gibbs, L., & Daly, J. (2007). Generating best evidence from qualitative research: The role of data analysis. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 31(6), 545–550.

Hobbs, R. (2010). Digital and media literacy: a plan of action. The Aspen Institute.

Jolls, T. (2008). Literacy for the 21st century: an overview & orientation guide to media literacy education (edition 2). Center for Media Literacy.

Jolls, T., & Grande, D. (2005). Project smartart: a case study in elementary school media literacy and arts education. Arts Education Policy Review, 107(1), 25–31.

Jolls, T., & Wilson, C. (2014). The core concepts: Fundemental to media literacy yesterday, today and tomorrow. Journal of Media Literacy Education, 6(2), 68–78.

Karataş, A., & Sözer, M. A. (2018). Media literacy training program for faculties of education. Kırıkkale University Journal of Social Sciences, 8(2), 593–606.

Kellner, D., & Share, J. (2007). Critical media literacy, democracy and the reconstruction of education. In Media literacy: A reader (pp. 3–23). Peter Lang Publishing.

Manzoor, A. (2016). Media literacy in the digital age: Literacy projects and organizations. In M. Yıldız & J. Keengwe (Eds.), Handbook of research on media literacy in the digital age (pp. 249–276).

Masterman, L. (2005). Teaching the media. Taylor & Francis e-Library.

McMillan, J. H. (2004). Educational research: Fundamentals for the consumer. Allyn & Bacon.

Mertler, C. A. (2017). Action research: Improving schools and empowering educators. Sage Publications.

National Assocation for Media Literacy Education. (2007). Core principles of media literacy education in the United States.

Parsons, R. D., & Brown, K. S. (2002). Teachers as reflective practitioner and action researcher. Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.

Pérez Tornero, J. M., & Varis, T. (2010). Media literacy and new humanism. UNESCO Institute for Information Technologies in Education.

Radio and Television Supreme Council. (2012). Media literacy workshop final decleration.

Redmond, T. (2016). Learning to teach the media: Pre-service teachers articulate the value of media literacy. In M. Yıldız & J. Keengwe (Eds.), Handbook of research on media literacy in the digital age (pp. 31–52). IGI Global.

Resta, P., & Carroll, T. (2010). Redefining teacher education for digital age learners. University of Texas Press.

Robertson, L., & Hughes, J. M. (2011). Investigating pre-service teachers’ understandings of critial media literacy. Language and Literacy, 13(2), 37–53.

Saban, A. (2000). New theories and approaches in learning and teaching process. Nobel Press.

Saban, A. (2021). Curriculum development through action research: A model proposal for practitioners. Pegem Journal of Education and Instruction, 11(1), 299–354.

Sawilowsky, S. (2009). New effect size rules of thumb. Theoretical and Behavioral Foundations of Education Faculty Publications, 8(2), 597–599.

Schmidt, H. C. (2013). Media literacy education from kindergarten to college: A comparison of how media literacy is addressed across the educational system. Journal of Media Literacy Education, 5(1), 295–309.

Schwarz, G. (2001). The role of media literacy in teacher education. Teacher Education Quarterly, 28(2), 111–119.

Scull, T. M., & Kupersmidt, J. B. (2012). An evaluation of media literacy program training workshop for late elementary teachers. Journal of Media Literacy Education, 2(3), 199–208.

Share, J., & Thoman, E. (2007). Teaching democracy: A media literacy approach. The National Center for Preservation of Democracy.

Stein, L., & Prewett, A. (2009). Media literacy education in the social studies: teacher perceptions and curricular changes. Teacher Education Quarterly, 36(1), 131–148.

Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2013). Using Multivariate Statistics. Pearson.

The Partnership for 21st Century Learning. (2009). Framework for 21st century learning.

Thoman, E., & Jolls, T. (2004). Media literacy: A national priority for a changing world. American Behavioral Scientist, 48(1), 18–29.

Thoman, E., & Jolls, T. (2005). Literacy for the 21st century: An overview & orientation guide to media literacy education. Center for Media Literacy Education.

Tiede, J., & Grafe, S. (2016). Media pedagogy in German and U.S. teacher education. Comunicar, 49(14), 19–28.

Tüzel, S. (2013). The analysis of L1 teaching programs in England, Canada, the USA and Australia regarding media literacy and their applicability to Turkish language teaching. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 13(4), 2310–2316.

Uslu, S., Yazıcı, K., & Çetin, M. (2016). Sosyal bilgiler öğretmen adaylarının medya okuryazarlık düzeyleri. Adıyaman Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 8(23), 756–778.

Wilson, C., & Duncan, B. (2008). Implementing mandates in media education: the Ontaria experience. Communicar, 32, 97–107.

Yılmaz, E., & Aladağ, S. (2015). Relationship between primary school teaching prospective teachers’ habits of reading periodical publications and media literacy. Uşak University Journal of Social Sciences, 8(4), 1–15.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Modern Education Studies

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.