Examination of the Relationship Between TPACK Competencies and Mathematics Teaching Anxiety: The Mediating Role of Mathematics Anxiety

İbrahim Çetin, Derya Özlem Yazlık


This study aimed at exploring the mediating role of mathematics anxiety in the relationship between TPACK competencies and mathematics teaching anxiety. This mediation role stated in the hypothesis of the study was tested through structural equation modeling using data from 426 pre-service mathematics teachers selected through criterion sampling. TPACK Competencies Scale, Mathematics Anxiety Scale, and Mathematics Teaching Anxiety Scale were used to collect data. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, and path analysis. The study revealed a negative relationship between TPACK competencies and mathematics anxiety, and mathematics teaching anxiety, while there was a positive relationship between mathematics anxiety and mathematics teaching anxiety. The results suggested that pre-service teachers' mathematics anxiety had a mediating role in accounting for the relationship between TPACK competencies and mathematics teaching anxiety. In addition, TPACK competencies explained 68% of the total variance in mathematics teaching anxiety through mathematics anxiety in the structural equation model. The findings are discussed in light of the related literature, and implications are offered for practitioners and researchers.    

Full Text:



Abbitt, J. T., & Klett, M. D. (2007). Identifying influences on attitudes and self-efficacy beliefs towards technology integration among pre-service educators. Electronic Journal for the integration of technology in Education, 6(1), 28-42.

Açıkgül, K., & Aslaner, R. (2015). Investigation of TPACK confidence perception of prospective elementary mathematics teachers. Erzincan University Journal of Education Faculty, 17(1), 118-152.

Ader, N. E. (2004). A self-regulation model to explain quantitative achievement in a high-stakes testing situation. Unpublished Master's Thesis, Boğaziçi University Institute of Science and Technology, Istanbul.

Akinsola, M. K. (2008). Relationship of some psychological variables in predicting problem solving ability of in-service mathematics teachers. The Montana Mathematics Enthusiast, 5(1), 79-100. https://doi.org/10.54870/1551-3440.1088

Aksu, Z., & Kul, Ü. (2019). The mediating role of mathematics teaching efficacy on the relationships between pedagogical content knowledge and mathematics teaching anxiety. SAGE Open, 9(3), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244019871049

Al-Mutawah, M. A. (2015). The influence of mathematics anxiety in middle and high school students’ math achievement. International Education Studies, 8(11), 239. https://doi.org/10.5539/ies.v8n11p239

Alayyar, G., Fisser, P., & Voogt, J. (2012). Developing technological pedagogical content knowledge in pre-service science teachers: support from blended learning. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 28(8), 1298-1316. https://doi.org/10.14742/ajet.773

Albayrak-Sarı, A., Canbazoğlu-Bilici, S., Baran, E., & Özbay, U. (2016). Investigating the relationship between teachers’ technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) competencies and attitudes towards information and communication technologies. Educational Technology Theory And Practice, 6(1), 1-21.

Angeli, C., & Valanides, N. (2009). Epistemological and methodological issues for the conceptualization, development, and assessment of ICT–TPCK: Advances in technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK). Computers & Education, 52(1), 154–168. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2008.07.006

Ameen. E. C., Guffey. D. M., & Jackson. C. (2002). Evidence of teaching anxiety among accounting educators. Journal of Education for Business, 78(1), 16-22. https://doi.org/10.1080/08832320209599692

Archambault, L. M., & Barnett, J. H. (2010). Revisiting technological pedagogical content knowledge: Exploring the TPCK framework. Computers & Education, 55(4), 1656-1662. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2010.07.009

Ashcraft, M. H. (2002). Math anxiety: personal, educational and cognitive consequences. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11 (5), 181-185. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8721.00196

Ashcraft, M. H., & Krause, J. A. (2007). Working memory, math performance and math anxiety. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 14(2), 243-248. https://doi.org/10.3758/bf03194059

Aydın, B. (2011). A study on secondary school students’ mathematics anxiety in terms of gender factor. Kastamonu Education Journal, 19(3). 1029-1036.

Bai, H. (2011). Cross-validating a bi-dimensional mathematics anxiety scale. Assessment, 18(1), 115-122. https://doi.org/10.1177/1073191110364312

Balçın, M., & Ergün, A. (2018). Determination of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) self-efficacy of science teacher candidates and analysis of them according to various variables. Mehmet Akif Ersoy University Journal of Education Faculty, 45, 23-47. https://doi.org/10.21764/maeuefd.311316

Baloğlu, M. (2001). Matematik korkusunu yenmek [Overcoming the fear of math]. Educational Sciences in Theory and Practice, 1(1), 59-76.

Baloğlu, M., & Koçak, R. (2006). Multivariate investigation of the differences in mathematics anxiety. Personality and Individual Differences, 40, 1325–1335. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2005.10.009

Baron, R. M. ve Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173-1182. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.51.6.1173

Başpınar, K., & Peker, M. (2016). The relationship between pre-service primary school teachers’ mathematics teaching anxiety and their beliefs about teaching and learning mathematics. The Journal of Theoretical Educational Science, 9(1), 1-14. http://dx.doi.org/10.5578/keg.10628

Bayırlı, H., Geçici, M. E., & Erdem, C. (2021). Matematik Kaygısı ile Matematik Başarısı Arasındaki İlişki: Bir Meta-Analiz Çalışması [The relationship betweeen mathematics anxiety and mathematics achievement: A meta-analysis study]. Pamukkale University Journal of Education, 53, 87-109. doi: 10.9779/pauefd.783083

Baykul, Y. (2016). İlkokulda matematik öğretimi [Teaching mathematics in primary school]. Ankara: PegemA Publishing.

Bekdemir, M., Işık, A., & Çıkılı, Y. (2004). Teacher behaviors causing and increasing mathematics anxiety and the ways of remedial. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research (EJER), 16, 88-94.

Brown, A. B., Westenskow, A., & Moyer-Pakenham, P. S. (2011). Elementary pre-service teachers: Can they experience mathematics teaching anxiety without having mathematics anxiety? Issues in the Undergraduate Mathematics Preparation of School Teachers, 5, 1-14.

Bursal, M., & Paznokas, L. (2006). Mathematics anxiety and preservice elementary teachers' confidence to teach mathematics and science. School Science and Mathematics, 106(4), 173-180. Wiley. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1949-8594.2006.tb18073.x

Byrne, B. M. (2010). Structural equation modeling with AMOS: Basic concepts, applications and programming. New York: Routledge.

Canbolat, N., Erdogan, A., & Yazlik, D. O. (2016). Examining the relationship between thinking styles and technological pedagogical content knowledge of the candidate mathematics teachers. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 4(11), 39-48. https://doi.org/10.11114/jets.v4i11.1819

Carjuzaa, J., & Williams, K. B. (2021). Navigating through Turbulent Times: US Secondary Teachers Share Their Experiences as Online Learners and the Implications for Their Teaching Practice. International Journal of Modern Education Studies, 5(2). https://doi.org/10.51383/ijonmes.2021.110

Cates, G. L., & Rhymer, K. N. (2003). Examining the relationship between mathematics anxiety and mathematics performance: An instructional hierarchy perspective. Journal of Behavioral Education, 12(1), 23-34.

Çelik, H. E. ve Yılmaz, V. (2013). Yapısal eşitlik modellemesi temel kavramlar uygulamalar programlama [Structural equation modeling basic concepts applications programming]. Ankara: Anı Publishing.

Çenberci, S. (2019). The examination of prospective mathematics teachers' mathematics teaching anxiety levels. Journal of Theoretical Educational Science, 12(4), 1193-1208. https://doi.org/10.30831/akukeg.455708

Çetin, İ. (2017). The investigation of changes in technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK) profiencies and levels of mathematics teacher candidates in secondary education. Unpublished PhD Thesis, Necmettin Erbakan University, Institute of Educational Sciences, Konya.

Demir, S., Özmantar, M. F., Bingölbali, E., & Bozkurt, A. (2011). An investigation of elementary teachers’ use of technology. In 5th International Computer and Instructional Technologies Symposium (pp. 22-24). Elazığ: Fırat University.

Demir, B. K., Cansız, Ş., Deniz, D., Kansu, C. Ç., & İşleyen, T. (2016). The investigation of primary school teacher candidates' anxiety levels for teaching mathematics in terms of different variables (The example of Bayburt). Journal of Bayburt Education Faculty, 11(2), 379-390.

Deringöl, Y. (2018). An examination of the mathematics teaching efficacy and the mathematics teaching anxiety of classroom teacher candidates. Journal of Theoretical Educational Science, 11(2), 261-278.

Dreger, R. M., & Aiken, L. R. (1957). The identification of number anxiety in a college population. Journal of Educational Psychology, 48(6), 344–351. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0045894

Erdemir, N., Bakırcı, H., & Eyduran, E. (2009). Determining of student teachers’ self-confidence using technology in instruction. Journal of Turkish Science Education, 6(3), 99-108.

Ertmer, P. A., & Ottenbreit-Leftwich, A. T. (2010). Teacher technology change: How knowledge, confidence, beliefs and culture intersect. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 42(3), 255-284. https://doi.org/10.1080/15391523.2010.10782551

Field, A. (2009). Discovering statistics using SPSS. California: Sage Publications.

Fraenkel, J. R., Wallen, N. E. ve Hyun, H. H. (2012). How to design and evaluate research in education. New York: McGraw Hill.

Gökoğlu-Uçar, B., & Ertekin, E. (2019). A study on the relationship between the pre-service mathematics teachers' technological pedagogical content knowledge and mathematics teaching anxiety. Research on Education and Psychology, 3(2), 209-224.

Graham, C. R., Borup, J., & Smith, N. B. (2012). Using TPACK as a framework to understand teacher candidates’ technology integration decisions. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 28(6), 530–546. Wiley. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2729.2011.00472.x

Gresham, G. (2010). A study exploring exceptional education pre-service teachers’ mathematics anxiety. IUMPST: The Journal, 4, 1-14.

Hacıömeroğlu, G. (2014). Elementary pre-service teachers’ mathematics anxiety and mathematics teaching anxiety. International Journal for Mathematics Teaching and Learning, 1-10.

Hadley, K. M., & Dorward, J. (2011). The relationship among elementary teachers’ mathematics anxiety, mathematics instructional practices and student mathematics achievement. Journal of Curriculum and Instruction, 5(2), 27-44. https://doi.org/10.3776/joci.2011.v5n2p27-44

Hembree, R. (1990). The nature effects, and relief of mathematics anxiety. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 21, 33-44. https://doi.org/10.2307/749455

Hew, K. F., & Brush, T. (2007). Integrating technology into K-12 teaching and learning: Current knowledge gaps and recommendations for future research. Educational Technology Research and Development, 55(3), 223–252. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11423-006-9022-5

Ho, H. Z., Senturk, D., Lam, A. G., Zimmer, J. M., Hong, S., Okamoto, Y., Chiu, S., Nakazawa, Y., & Wang C. (2000). The affective and cognitive dimensions of math anxiety: A cross-national study. Journal For Research

In Mathematics Education, 31(3), 362-379. https://doi.org/10.2307/749811

Hoşşirin-Elmas, S. (2010). The pre-service primary school teachers’ mathematics teaching anxiety levels and the reasons which cause thıs anxiety. Unpublished Master's Thesis, Afyon Kocatepe University Institute of Social Sciences, Afyonkarahisar.

Huber, J., & Ward, B. E. (1969). Pre-service confidence through microteaching. Education, 90(1), 65-68. https://doi.org/10.1080/08878736909554443

Jang, S. J., & Tsai, M. F. (2012). Exploring the TPACK of Taiwanese elementary mathematics and science teachers with respect to use of interactive whiteboards. Computers & Education, 59(2), 327-338. Elsevier BV. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2012.02.003

Juniati, D., & Budayasa, I. K. (2021). Field-based tasks with technology to reduce mathematics anxiety and improve performance. World Transactions on Engineering and Technology Education, 19(1), 58-64.

Karasar, N. (2005). Bilimsel araştırma yöntemi [Scientific research method]] Ankara: Nobel Publication Distribution.

Katipoğlu, M., & Öncü, B. (2015). Students’ views towards the reason why Mathematics ıs hardly being perceived according to Social Studies teacher candidates. International Journal of Social Sciences and Education Research, 1(4), 1357-1370. https://doi.org/10.24289/ijsser.279122

Kaya, Z., Özdemir, T. Y., Emre, İ., & Kaya, O. N. (2011). Determination of technological pedagogical content knowledge self-efficacy levels of information technology teacher candidates. In 5th International Computer and Instructional Technologies Symposium (pp. 22-24).

Kayan, F., & Çakıroğlu, E. (2008). Preservice elementary mathematics teachers’ mathematical problem solving beliefs. Hacettepe University Journal of Education, 35, 218-226.

Keitel, C., & Kilpatrick, J. (2005). Mathematics education and common sense. In Meaning in Mathematics Education. J. Kilpatrick. C. Hoyles. O. Skovsmose and P. Valero (Eds.), (pp.105-128). Unite States: Springer Science+Business Media. Inc.

Kline, R. B. (2011). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. New York and London: The Guilford Press.

Koehler, M., & Mishra, P. (2009). What is technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK)? Contemporary issues in technology and teacher education, 9(1), 60-70.

Levine, G. (1993). Prior mathematics history. anticipated mathematics teaching style. and anxiety for teaching mathematics among pre-service elementary school teachers. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the International Group for Psychology of Mathematics Education. North American Chapter.

Lim, C. S., & Ernest, P. (1999). Public images of Mathematics. Philosophy of Mathematics Education Journal, 11, 43-55.

Ma, X., & Xu, J. (2004). The causal ordering of mathematics anxiety and mathematics achievement: A longitudinal panel analysis. Journal of Adolescence, 27(2), 165-179. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2003.11.003

MacKinnon, D. ve Fairchild, A. (2009). Current directions in mediation analysis. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 18, 16-20. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8721.2009.01598.x

Markovits, Z., & Forgasz, H. (2017). “Mathematics is like a lion”: Elementary students’ beliefs about mathematics. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 96(1), 49-64. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10649-017-9759-2

Meydan, C. H. ve Şeşen, H. (2011). Structural equation modeling AMOS applications [Yapısal Eşitlik Modellemesi Amos Uygulamaları]. Ankara: Detay Publishing.

Miller, L. D., & Mitchell, C. E. (1994). Mathematics Anxiety and Alternative Methods of Evaluation. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 21(4), 353-358.

Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. J. (2006). Technological pedagogical content knowledge: A framework for integrating technology in teacher knowledge. Teachers College Record, 108(6), 1017-1054. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9620.2006.00684.x

Montgomery, D. C. ve Peck, E. A. (1992). Introduction to linear regression analysis. USA: A. Wiley- Interscience Publication.

Mutluoğlu, A., & Erdoğan, A. (2016). Examining primary mathematics teachers’ technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) levels according to their preferred teaching styles. International Journal of Society Researches, 6(10), 102-126.

Niess, M. L. (2012). Teacher knowledge for teaching with technology: A TPACK lens. In Educational technology, teacher knowledge, and classroom impact: A research handbook on frameworks and approaches (pp. 1-15). IGI Global. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-60960-750-0.ch001

Nolting, P. D. (2010). Math study skills workbook. (Fourth Edition). USA: Brooks/Cole.

Olatunde, Y. P. (2009). Mathematics anxiety and academic achievement in some selected senior secondary schools in southwestern Nigeria. Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences. 6(3), 133-137. https://doi.org/10.3923/pjssci.2010.23.27

Olson, A. M., & Stoehr, K. J. (2019). From numbers to narratives: Preservice teachers experiences’ with mathematics anxiety and mathematics teaching anxiety. School Science and Mathematics, 119(2), 72-82. https://doi.org/10.1111/ssm.12320

Önal, N. (2016). Development, Validity and Reliability of TPACK Scale with Pre-Service Mathematics Teachers. International Online Journal of Educational Sciences. https://doi.org/10.15345/iojes.2016.02.009

Özdemir, E., & Gür, H. (2011). Validity and reliability study of mathematics anxiety apprehension survey (MASS). Education and Science, 36(161), 39-50.

Özgen, K., Narlı, S., & Alkan, H. (2013). An investigaion of mathematics teacher trainees’ technological pedagogical content knowledge and their perception of the frequency of technology use. Electronic Journal of Social Sciences, 12(44): 31-51.

Peker, M. (2006). The development of mathematics teaching anxiety scale. Journal of Educational Sciences & Practices, 5(9), 73-92.

Peker, M. (2008). Eğitim programları ve öğretmen adaylarının matematik öğretme kaygısı [Educational programs and pre-service teachers' anxiety about teaching mathematics]. VIII. National Science and Mathematics Education Congress. 27-29 August, Abant İzzet Baysal University, Bolu.

Peker, M. (2009). The use of expanded microteaching for reducing preservice teachers’ teaching anxiety about mathematics. Scientific Research and Essay, 4(9), 872-880.

Peker, M. (2016). Mathematics teaching anxiety and self-efficacy beliefs toward mathematics teaching: A path analysis. Educational Research and Reviews, 11(3), 97-104. https://doi.org/10.5897/err2015.2552

Peker, M., & Ertekin. E. (2011). The relationship between mathematics teaching anxiety and mathematics anxiety. The New Educational Review, 23(1): 213-226.

Peker, M., & Halat, E. (2009). Teaching anxiety and the mathematical representations developed through Web Quest and spreadsheet activities. Journal of Applied Sciences, 9(7), 1301-1308. https://doi.org/10.3923/jas.2009.1301.1308

Perry, A. B. (2004). Decreasing mathematics anxiety in college students. College Student Journal, 38(2). 321-324.

Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. 2003. Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5): 879–903. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.88.5.879

Preacher, K. J. ve Hayes, A. F. (2008). Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior Research Methods, 40, 79-891. https://doi.org/10.3758/brm.40.3.879

Saltan, F., & Arslan, K. (2017). A comparison of in-service and pre-service teachers’ technological pedagogical content knowledge self-confidence. Cogent Education, 4(1), 1311501. https://doi.org/10.1080/2331186x.2017.1311501

Sancar-Tokmak, H., İncikabi, L., & Yanpar-Yelken, T. (2012). Differences in the educational software evaluation process for experts and novice students. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 28(8), 1283-1297. https://doi.org/10.14742/ajet.772

Sancar-Tokmak, H., Yavuz-Konokman, G., & Yanpar-Yelken, T. (2013). An investigation of Mersin University early childhood pre-service teachers' self-confidence about their technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK). Ahi Evran University Journal of Kırsehir Education Faculty, 14(1), 35-51.

Schmidt, D. A., Baran, E., Thompson, A. D., Mishra, P., Koehler, M. J., & Shin, T. S. (2009). Technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) the development and validation of an assessment instrument for preservice teachers. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 42(2), 123-149. https://doi.org/10.1080/15391523.2009.10782544

Schumacker, R. E. ve Lomax, R. G. (2010). A beginner’s guide to structural equation modeling. New York: Routledge.

Serin, M. K. (2017). Investigation of pre-service primary school teachers’ mathematics anxiety and mathematics teaching anxiety. International Journal of Eurasia Social Science, 8(28).

Sherman, B. F., & Wither, D. P. (2003). Mathematics anxiety and mathematics achievement. Mathematics Education Research Journal, 15(2), 138-150. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf03217375

Shulman, L. S. (1986). Those who understand: knowledge growth in teaching. Educational Researcher, 15(2), 4-14. https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189x015002004

Sun, Y., & Pyzdrowski, L. (2009). Using technology as a tool to reduce mathematics anxiety. The Journal of Human Resource and Adult Learning, 5(2), 38-44.

Swanson, D., & Nebraska A. (2006). Math Anxiety. What can teachers do to help their students overcome the feeling? Math Anxiety, 1-29.

Swars, S. L., Daane, C. J., & Giesen, J. (2006). Mathematics anxiety and mathematics teacher efficacy: What is the relationship in elementary preservice teachers? School Science and Mathematics, 106(7), 306-315. Wiley. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1949-8594.2006.tb17921.x

Şad, S. N., & Göktaş, Ö. (2014). Preservice teachers' perceptions about using mobile phones and laptops in education as mobile learning tools. British Journal of Educational Technology, 45(4), 606-618. Wiley. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjet.12064

Şad, S. N., Açıkgül, K., & Delican, K. (2015). Senior pre-service teachers’ senses of efficacy on their technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK). Journal of Theoretical Educational Science, 8(2), 204-235. http://dx.doi.org/10.5578/keg.9480

Şenol, A., Dündar, S., Kaya, İ., Gündüz, N., & Temel, H. (2015). Investigation of secondary school mathematics teachers’ opinions on mathematics fear. Journal of Theory and Practice in Education, 11 (2), 653-672.

Tatar, E., Zengin, Y., & Kağızmanlı, T. B. (2015). What is the relationship between technology and mathematics teaching anxiety? Educational Technology & Society, 18(1), 67–76.

Tatar, E., Zengin, Y., & Kağızmanlı, T. B. (2016). Examining levels of mathematics teaching anxiety of pre-service teachers. Journal of Theoretical Educational Science, 9(1), 38-56. http://dx.doi.org/10.5578/keg.10006

Timur, B., & Taşar, M. F. (2011). The adaptation of the technological pedagogical content knowledge confidence survey into Turkish. Gaziantep University Journal of Social Sciences, 10(2):839 -856.

Ural, A. (2015). The effect of mathematics self-efficacy on anxiety of teaching mathematics. Journal of Theoretical Educational Science, 8(2), 173-184. http://dx.doi.org/10.5578/keg.9075

Üldaş, İ. (2005). Development of a mathematics anxiety scale towards teachers and teacher candidates (MAS-T) and an assessment on mathematics anxiety. Unpublished Master's Thesis, Marmara University Institute of Education Sciences, İstanbul.

Üredi, I., & Üredi, L. (2005). The predictive power of self-regulation strategies and motivational beliefs on mathematics achievement of primary school 8th grade students. Mersin University Journal of The Faculty of Education, 1(2), 250-260.

Vinson, B. M. (2001). A comparison of preservice teachers' mathematics anxiety before and after a methods class emphasizing manipulatives. Early Childhood Education Journal, 29(2), 89-94.

Van de Walle, J. A. (2004). Elementary and middle school mathematics: teaching developmentally. Pearson Education.

Wilson, S. (2013). Mature age pre-service teachers’ mathematics anxiety and factors ımpacting on university retention (pp, 666-673). In V. Steinle, L. Ball & C. Bardini (Eds.), Mathematics education: Yesterday, today and tomorrow. Melbourne, VIC: Merga.

Wilson, S. (2013). Investigating rural pre-service teachers' mathematics anxiety using the Revised Mathematics Anxiety Scale (RMARS). Australian and International Journal of Rural Education, 23(3), 1-11.

Yanpar-Yelken, T., Sancar-Tokmak, H., Özgelen, S., & İncikabı, L. (2013). Fen ve matematik eğitiminde teknolojik pedagojik alan bilgisi temelli öğretim tasarımları [Technological pedagogical content knowledge-based instructional designs in science and mathematics education]. Ankara: Anı Publishing.

Yavuz, G. (2018). Do prospective teachers have anxieties about teaching mathematics? International Journal of Higher Education, 7(2), 68-75. https://doi.org/10.5430/ijhe.v7n2p68

Yazlık, D. Ö., & Çetin, İ. (2020). Examining the relationship between mathematics anxiety and mathematics teaching anxiety of prospective mathematics teachers. Turkish Journal of Computer and Mathematics Education, 11(3), 646-667.

Yenilmez, K. (2010). High school students’ hopelessness levels towards mathematics. Hacettepe University Journal of Education, 38, 307-317.

Yetim-Karaca, S., & Ada, S. (2018). Determining students' perceptions regarding the Mathematics and mathematics teachers through metaphors. Kastamonu University Kastamonu Education Journal, 26(3), 790-800. https://doi.org/10.24106/kefdergi.413327

Yılmaz, V., & Dalbudak, Z. İ. (2018). Research of the rffect of mediatıon variable: An application of the management of high-speed train. International Journal of Management Economics and Business, 14(2), 517-534.

Zakaria, E., & Nordin, M. N. (2008). The effects of mathematics anxiety on matriculation students as related to motivation and achievement. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics Science & Technology Education, 4(1), 27-30. https://doi.org/10.12973/ejmste/75303

Zengin, Y. (2017). The investigation of the effect of GeoGebra software on mathematics anxiety and mathematics teaching anxiety. YYU Journal Of Education Faculty, 14(1), 908-939.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.51383/ijonmes.2022.173


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Modern Education Studies

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.