Investigation of Prospective Preschool Teachers' Digital Literacy and Teacher Readiness Levels

Views: 587 | Download: 186


The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between prospective preschool teachers' digital literacy and teaching readiness levels. The research was conducted with the correlational survey model, one of the quantitative research methods. The sample of the study consisted of 349 prospective preschool teachers studying in third and fourth year in four state universities in Turkey during the academic year 2020-2021. Data on digital literacy levels of prospective preschool teachers were collected with the "Digital Literacy Scale", and data on their readiness to teach were collected with the "Teaching Readiness Scale". The data were analyzed with the SPSS 22 software program. As a result of the analysis of the data, it was determined that prospective preschool teachers' digital literacy and teaching readiness levels were high, and that their levels of digital literacy and teaching readiness did not differ according to gender or grade level variables. It was revealed that there was a moderate, positive relationship between the digital literacy and teaching readiness levels of prospective teachers.

Full Text:



Ally, M. (2019). Competency profile of the digital and online teacher in future education. International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 20(2), 301-318.

Bakir, N. (2015). An exploration of contemporary realities of technology and teacher education: Lessons learned. Journal of Digital Learning in Teacher Education, 31(3), 117-130.

Balcı, Ö., Şanal, F., & Üğüten, S. D. (2019). An Investigation of pre-service english language teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs. International Journal of Modern Education Studies, 3(1), 41-53.

Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Bastian, K. C., Lys, D., & Pan, Y. (2018). A framework for improvement: Analyzing performance-assessment scores for evidence-based teacher preparation program reforms. Journal of Teacher Education, 69(5), 448-462.

Bawden, D. (2001). Information and digital literacies: a review of concepts. Journal of Documentation, 57(2), 218-259.

Binkley, M., Erstad, O., Herman, J., Raizen, S., Ripley, M., Miller-Ricci, M., & Rumble, M. (2012). Defining twenty-first century skills. In P. Griffin, B. McGaw & E. Care (Eds). Assessment and teaching of 21st century skills (pp. 17-66). Springer, Dordrecht.

Bond, M., Marín, V. I., Dolch, C., Bedenlier, S., & Zawacki-Richter, O. (2018). Digital transformation in German higher education: student and teacher perceptions and usage of digital media. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 15(1), 48.

Brown, A. L., Lee, J., & Collins, D. (2015). Does student teaching matter? Investigating pre-service teachers’ sense of efficacy and preparedness. Teaching Education, 26(1), 77-93.

Bullen, M., Morgan, T., & Qayyum, A. (2011). Digital learners in higher education: Generation is not the issue. Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology,37(1),1-24.

Burnett, C. (2011). Pre-service teachers’ digital literacy practices: exploring contingency in identity and digital literacy in and out of educational contexts. Language and Education, 25(5), 433-449.

Buzzetto-Hollywood, N., Wang, H., Elobeid, M., & Elobeid, M. (2018). Addressing information literacy and the digital divide in higher education. Interdisciplinary Journal of e-Skills and Lifelong Learning, 14, 77-93.

Caires, S., Almeida, L., & Vieira, D. (2012). Becoming a teacher: Student teachers’ experiences and perceptions about teaching practice. European Journal of Teacher Education, 35(2), 163-178.

Can, A. (2019). Quantitative data analysis in the scientific research process with SPSS. Ankara: Pegem Publishing.

Can, Ş., Çelik, B., & Çelik, C. (2020). The effects of various variables on the digital literacy level of preservice science teachers. Journal of Education Theory and Practical Research, 6(3), 352-358.

Chase, Z. & Laufenberg, D. (2011). Embracing the squishiness of digital literacy. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 54(7), 535-537.

Colson, T., Sparks, K., Berridge, G., Frimming, R., & Willis, C. (2017). Pre-service teachers and self-efficacy: A study in contrast. Discourse and Communication for Sustainable Education, 8(2), 66-76.

Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. Boston: Pearson.

Çetin, O. (2016). Examining the digital literacy levels of undergraduate science education and pedagogical formation programme preservice teachers. Erzincan University Journal of Education Faculty, 18(2), 658-685.

Dedebali, N. C. (2020). Analysis of digital literacy and metaphoric perceptions of teacher candidate. International Journal of Educational Methodology, 6(1), 135-145.

Dikmen, M. & Tuncer, M. (2018). Teacher candıdates' ınformatıon lıteracy self-effıcacy and attıtudes towards the professıon. Academic View Journal, 66, 310-325.

Doğrul, H. & Kılıç, F. (2020). Investigation of pre-school teacher’s attitudes towards teaching rofession in terms of different variables. Journal of University Research, 3(2), 49-57.

Elstad, E. & Christophersen, K. A. (2017). Perceptions of digital competency among student teachers: Contributing to the development of student teachers’ instructional self-efficacy in technology-rich classrooms. Education Sciences, 7(1), 27.

Ertmer, P. A. & Ottenbreit-Leftwich, A. T. (2010). Teacher technology change: How knowledge, confidence, beliefs, and culture intersect. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 42(3), 255-284.

Eshet, Y. (2004). Digital literacy: A conceptual framework for survival skills in the digital era. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 13(1), 93-106.

Esteve-Mon, F., Llopis, M., & Adell-Segura, J. (2020). Digital competence and computational thinking of student teachers. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (IJET), 15(2), 29-41.

Fackler, S., Malmberg, L. E., & Sammons, P. (2021). An international perspective on teacher self-efficacy: personal, structural and environmental factors. Teaching and Teacher Education, 99, 1-17.

Fraenkel, J. R., Wallen, N. E., & Hyun, H. H. (2012). How to design and evaluate research in education. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

General Directorate of Teacher Training and Development (GDTTD). (2017). General competencies of the teaching profession. Retrieved from December 23, 2020

Gill, L. & Dalgarno, B. (2017). A qualitative analysis of pre-service primary school teachers’ TPACK development over the four years of their teacher preparation programme. Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 26(4), 439-456.

Gilster, P. (1997). Digital literacy. New York: Wiley Computer Publishing.

Gruszczynska, A. & Pountney, R. (2013). Developing the concept of digital literacy in the context of schools and teacher education. Enhancing Learning in the Social Sciences, 5(1), 25-36.

Gruszczynska, A., Merchant, G., & Pountney, R. (2013). Digital futures in teacher education: Exploring open approaches towards digital literacy. Electronic Journal of e-Learning, 11(3), 193-206.

Gudmundsdottir, G. B. & Hatlevik, O. E. (2018). Newly qualified teachers’ professional digital competence: implications for teacher education. European Journal of Teacher Education, 41(2), 214-231.

Guzmán-Simón, F., García-Jiménez, E., & López-Cobo, I. (2017). Undergraduate students’ perspectives on digital competence and academic literacy in a Spanish University. Computers in Human Behavior, 74, 196-204.

Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., & Black, W. (1998). Multivariate data analysis. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River: NJ.

Hamutoğlu, N. B., Güngören, Ö. C., Uyanık, G. K., & Erdoğan, D. G. (2017). Adapting digital literacy scale into Turkish. Ege Journal of Education, 18(1), 408-429.

Harris, J., Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. (2009). Teachers’ technological pedagogical content knowledge and learning activity types: Curriculum-based technology integration reframed. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 41(4), 393-416.

Hatlevik, I. K. R. (2017). The impact of prospective teachers’ perceived competence on subsequent perceptions as schoolteachers. Teachers and Teaching, 23(7), 810-828.

Hepp, P., Fernández, M. À. P., & García, J. H. (2015). Teacher training: technology helping to develop an innovative and reflective professional profile. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 12(2), 30-43.

Hsu, PS. (2012). Examining the impact of educational technology courses on pre-service teachers’ development of technological pedagogical content knowledge. Teaching Education 23(2),195-213.

Instefjord, E. & Munthe, E. (2016). Preparing pre-service teachers to integrate technology: an analysis of the emphasis on digital competence in teacher education curricula. European Journal of Teacher Education, 39(1), 77-93.

Instefjord, E. J. & Munthe, E. (2017). Educating digitally competent teachers: A study of integration of professional digital competence in teacher education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 67, 37-45.

Ismail, S. A. A. & Jarrah, A. M. (2019). Exploring pre-service teachers' perceptions of their pedagogical preferences, teaching competence and motivation. International Journal of Instruction, 12(1), 493-510.

Jones, R. H. & Hafner, C. A. (2012). Understanding digital literacies: A practical introduction. Oxon, UK: Routledge.

Karakaya, F., Uzel, N., Gül, A., & Yılmaz, M. (2019). Pre-service teachers' levels of preparedness to teach. Gazi University Journal of Gazi Educational Faculty (GUJGEF), 39(1), 373-396.

Karatekin, K., Merey, Z., & Keçe, M. (2015). Analysis of the attitudes of the social studies pre-service teachers towards teaching profession. YYU Journal Of Education Facult, 12(1), 70-96.

Khalid, A., Dukmak, S. J., & Dweikat, F. F. I. (2017). Pre-service teachers’ perception of their educational preparation. International Journal for Research in Education, 41(1), 273-303.

Kim, H. J., Hong, A. J., & Song, H. D. (2018). The relationships of family, perceived digital competence and attitude, and learning agility in sustainable student engagement in higher education. Sustainability, 10(12), 4635.

Koehler M.J., Mishra P., Kereluik K., Shin T.S., Graham C.R. (2014) The technological pedagogical content knowledge framework. In J. Spector, M. Merrill, J. Elen, M. Bishop (Eds.) Handbook of research on educational communications and technology. New York, NY: Springer.

Koehler, M. J., Mishra, P., Akcaoglu, M., & Rosenberg, J. (2013). The technological pedagogical content knowledge framework for teachers and teacher educators. In R. Thyagarajan (Edt.), ICT integrated teacher education: A resource book (pp. 2–7). New Delhi: Commonwealth Educational Media Centre for Asia.

Kopcha, T. J. (2012). Teachers' perceptions of the barriers to technology integration and practices with technology under situated professional development. Computers & Education, 59(4), 1109-1121.

Kozan, M. & Bulut Özek, M. (2019). Examination of department of CEIT teacher candidates’ digital literacy levels and cyberbullying sensitivities. Firat University Journal of Social Sciences, 29(1), 107-120.

Kul, S. (2020). The ınvestıgatıon of the relatıonshıp of ınternet addıctıon wıth dıgıtal lıteracy and varıous other varıables. International Journal of Management Information Systems and Computer Science, 4(1), 28-41.

Kula, A. (2015). Examination of pre-service teachers' technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) competencies: Bartın University example. The Journal of Academic Social Science, 3(12), 395-412.

Kunter, M., Klusmann, U., Baumert, J., Richter, D., Voss, T., & Hachfeld, A. (2013). Professional competence of teachers: Effects on instructional quality and student development. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105(3), 805–820.

Lauermann, F. & König, J. (2016). Teachers’ professional competence and wellbeing: Understanding the links between general pedagogical knowledge, self-efficacy and burnout. Learning and Instruction, 45, 9-19.

León-Pérez, F. L. P., Bas, M. C. B., Escudero-Nahón, A. E. N., León-Pérez, F., Bas, M. C., & Escudero-Nahón, A. (2020). Self-perception about emerging digital skills in higher education students. Comunicar. Media Education Research Journal, 28(1), 91-101.

Leung, C. H., Wong, B. K. M., & Wong, J. (2013). Conceptions of learning in pre-service and in-service early childhood education students and the impact of teaching experience. Australasian Journal of Early Childhood, 38(3), 57-67.

Ligocki, D. & Sturgis, S. (2021). The power and possibilities for young viewers of reality television when educators and researchers partner together for critical media literacy. Journal of Educational Studies and Multidisciplinary Approaches (JESMA), 1(2), 120-134.

List, A. (2019). Defining digital literacy development: An examination of pre-service teachers’ beliefs. Computers & Education, 138, 146-158.

Loughran, J., Berry, A., & Mulhall, P. (2012). Understanding and developing scienceteachers’ pedagogical content knowledge. Rotterdam, Netherlands: Sense.

Lund, A., Furberg, A., Bakken, J., & Engelien, K. L. (2014). What does professional digital competence mean in teacher education? Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy, 9(04), 280-298.

Maderick, J. A., Zhang, S., Hartley, K., & Marchand, G. (2016). Preservice teachers and self-assessing digital competence. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 54(3), 326-351.

Margaryan, A., Littlejohn, A., & Vojt, G. (2011). Are digital natives a myth or reality? University students’ use of digital technologies. Computers & Education, 56(2), 429-440.

McGarr, O. & Gavaldon, G. (2018). Exploring Spanish pre-service teachers’ talk in relation to ICT: balancing different expectations between the university and practicum school. Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 27(2), 199-209.

McGarry, K. (1994). Definitions and meanings of literacy. In Barker, K. & Lonsdale, R. (Eds). Skills for life: the value and meaning of literacy. London: Taylor Graham.

McLoughlin, C. & Lee, M. J. (2010). Personalised and self regulated learning in the Web 2.0 era: International exemplars of innovative pedagogy using social software. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 26(1), 28-43.

Meyers, E. M., Erickson, I., & Small, R. V. (2013). Digital literacy and informal learning environments: an introduction. Learning, Media and Technology, 38(4), 355-367.

Mishra, P. & Koehler, M. J. (2006). Technological pedagogical content knowledge: A framework for teacher knowledge. Teachers College Record, 108(6), 1017-1054.

Mourlam, D. J., Strouse, G. A., Newland, L. A., & Lin, H. (2019). Can they do it? A comparison of teacher candidates' beliefs and preschoolers' actual skills with digital technology and media. Computers & Education, 129, 82-91.

Mouza, C. (2016). Developing and assessing TPACK among pre-service teachers: A synthesis of research. In M. C. Herring, M. J. Koehler & P. Mishra (Eds.), Handbook of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) for educators (pp. 169–190). New York, NY: Routledge.

Muijs, D. (2010). Doing quantitative research in education with SPSS. London: Sage.

Murkatik, K., Harapan, E., & Wardiah, D. (2020). The ınfluence of professional and pedagogic competence on teacher’s performance. Journal of Social Work and Science Education, 1(1), 58-69.

Ng, W. (2012). Can we teach digital natives digital literacy?. Computers & Education, 59(3), 1065-1078.

Ocak, G. & Karakuş, D. Ö. G. (2019). An ınvestigation of digital literacy self-efficacy skills of pre-service teachers ın terms of different variables. Afyon Kocatepe University Journal of Social Sciences, 21(1), 129-147.

Owens, J. & Lilly, F. (2017). The influence of academic discipline, race, and gender on web-use skills among graduate-level students. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 29(2), 286-308.

Özerbaş, M. A. & Kuralbayeva, A. (2018). A review of digital literacy levels of future primary-school and secondary-school teachers in Turkey and Kazakhstan. MSKU Journal of Education, 5(1), 16-25.

Pendergast, D., Garvis, S., & Keogh, J. (2011). Pre-service student-teacher self-efficacy beliefs: An insight into the making of teachers. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 36(12), 4.

Prior, D. D., Mazanov, J., Meacheam, D., Heaslip, G., & Hanson, J. (2016). Attitude, digital literacy and self efficacy: Flow-on effects for online learning behavior. The Internet and Higher Education, 29, 91-97.

Røkenes, F. M. & Krumsvik, R. J. (2014). Development of student teachers’ digital competence in teacher education-A literature review. Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy, 9(04), 250-280.

Specht, J. A. & Metsala, J. L. (2018). Predictors of teacher efficacy for inclusive practice in pre-service teachers. Exceptionality Education International, 28(3), 67-82.

Subbaye, R. & Vithal, R. (2017). Gender, teaching and academic promotions in higher education. Gender and Education, 29(7), 926-951.

Şad, S. N. & Nalçacı, Ö. İ. (2015). Prospective teachers’ perceived competencies about ıntegrating ınformation and communication technologies into education. Mersin University Journal of the Faculty of Education, 11(1), 177-197.

Tabachnick, B.G. & Fidell, L.S (2012). Using multivariate statistics. UK: Pearson.

Tarling, I. & Dick, N. (2016). Teachers pedagogical change framework: a diagnostic tool for changing teachers’ uses of emerging technologies. British Journal of Educational Technology, 47( 3), 554-572.

Teddlie, C. & Tashakkori, A. (2015). Fundamentals of mixed method research. In Y. Dede & S.B. Demir (Trs.). Ankara: Anı Publishing.

Tondeur, J., Aesaert, K., Prestridge, S., & Consuegra, E. (2018). A multilevel analysis of what matters in the training of pre-service teacher's ICT competencies. Computers & Education, 122, 32-42.

Tondeur, J., Pareja Roblin, N., van Braak, J., Voogt, J., & Prestridge, S. (2017). Preparing beginning teachers for technology integration in education: Ready for take-off? Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 26(2), 157-177.

Tondeur, J., Van Braak, J., Sang, G., Voogt, J., Fisser, P., & Ottenbreit-Leftwich, A. (2012). Preparing pre-service teachers to integrate technology in education: A synthesis of qualitative evidence. Computers & Education, 59(1), 134-144.

Tuncer, M. & Bahadır, F. (2016). Evaluatıons of prospectıve teachers accordıng to theır attıtudes towards teachıng professıon and technopedagogıc content knowledge competencıes. Electronic Turkish Studies, 11(9), 839-858.

Uslu, B. & Çeliköz, M. (2020). The study of preschool teachers’ and principals’ opinions on Turkish Education System. International Journal of Modern Education Studies, 4(1), 1-23.

Üstündağ, M. T., Güneş, E., & Bahçivan, E. (2017). Turkish adaptation of digital literacy scale and ınvestigating pre-service science teachers’ digital literacy. Journal of Education and Future, 12, 19-29.

Welsh, K. A. & Schaffer, C. (2017). Developing the effective teaching skills of teacher candidates during early field experiences. The Educational Forum, 81(3), 301-321.

Wetzel, K., Buss, R., Foulger, T. S., & Lindsey, L. (2014). Infusing educational technology in teaching methods courses: Successes and dilemmas. Journal of Digital Learning in Teacher Education, 30(3), 89-103.

Yasa, H. D. (2018). Analysis of the relationship between the lifelong learning tendencies and information literacy skills of teacher candidates. (Master's thesis). Bartın University Institute of Educational Sciences Department of Lifelong Learning, Bartın.

Yazıcıoğlu, A., Yaylak, E., & Genç, G. (2020). Digital literacy levels of prospective preschool and primary school teachers. The Journal of Social Sciences Research, 10(2), 274-286.

Yıldırım, İ. & Kalman, M. (2017). The validity and reliability study of the turkish version of the preparedness to teach scale. Kastamonu Education Journal, 25(6), 2311-2326.

Yontar, A. (2019). Digital literacy levels of teacher candidates. Journal of Mother Tongue Education, 7(4), 815-824.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Modern Education Studies

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.